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Referencing, Citing, and Structuring Bibliographies

A beginners' guide to referencing and bibliographies.

What is EndNote?

EndNote is a client-based (i.e. installed on a computer) software package to enable you to: organise, store and manage your references, create bibliographies automatically in MS Word or OpenOffice, directly import references from Library journals databases (e.g Web of Science) and library catalogues including Royal Holloway’s and the British Library.

EndNote Web Guides

In addition to this, there are a number of video tutorials available online - and a YouTube channel with tutorials organised into playlists by theme. 

Also see the EndNote Hints & Tips sections at the bottom of this guide.

Captions on YouTube videos can be translated into a range of different languages - click the Captions button under the video, choose 'Translate Captions', and select your preferred language.

How do I get EndNote?

Undergraduates? Taught Postgraduates?

The latest version of EndNote is installed on all the machines in the student PC Labs. 

Research Postgraduates? Staff?

The software is available to self-install on any College-owned computer as follows:

1. Close all MS Office applications including Outlook.
2. Open Windows Control Panel
3. Select "Run Advertised Programs" ( listed alphabetically in Classic Control Panel view and is under "Add/remove programs" in Category Control Panel view) - if this is not available then please log a call with the IT Department to register your PC name and have SCCM software installed first.
4. Select "Thomson Reuters Endnote..."
5. Select "Run"
6. It will then prompt to download, tick the "run when downloaded" option and select "Download"

The software will take fewer than two minutes to download and then the same again to install.


Hints and Tips - Adding Page Numbers to Citations

To properly add page numbers to an in-text citation in a standard author/year output style:

 1. In the body of your text, please click within the citation you would like to modify.

   Note: With EndNote X4 or later on the Mac, clicking on the citation may activate the hyperlink. If that is the case, hold down the [Option] key and then click on    the citation to select it before following the steps below, or use the Right-Click or Control-click option.

 2. Right-Click (or Control click if you have a one button mouse on the Mac) on the item and choose "Edit Citation" from the popup menu.*


 3. If this is a group of citations, under "Citations in Document" select the one to which you want to add page numbers. Under "Formatted Citation", type the page      numbers in the Suffix field (not the Pages field**).


 4. Be sure to include any spaces or punctuation you want to show up between the year and the pages, as this is not placed in automatically. Most likely,      you'll want to put in something like ", p. 123", without the quotes.


 5. Click the "OK" button, and your pages should now appear in the citation.

 While not typical, certain output styles (such as MLA) are configured to use the special "Cited Pages" field as part of the citation template, enabling you to enter citation page numbers into the Pages field** or the Citation Range in Pages '09*. Consult the Bibliographic Styles section of your EndNote Manual for details.

* Alternatively, you can get to Edit Citation using the following method: 

Word 2007/2010/2013 with EndNote X4 and later: Go to the EndNote tab and choose "Edit and Manage Citation(s)."

Word 2003/2004/2008/2011 with EndNote X4 and later: Go to the "Tools" Menu and choose "EndNote >Edit and Manage Citation(s)."

Word 2007 with Endnote X1/X2/X3: Go to the EndNote tab and choose "Edit Citation(s)."

Word 2007 with EndNote X and earlier: Go to the Add-Ins tab and choose "EndNote > Edit Citation(s)."

Word X/2000/2002 (XP)/2003/2004/2008/2011 with EndNote X3 and earlier: Go to the "Tools" Menu and choose "EndNote > Edit Citation(s)." Writer 3.x: Go to the "Endnote" Menu and choose "Edit Citation(s)."

Pages 5: Click on the formatted reference in Pages.In the Pop-up window, add page numbers in the Suffix field as described below. 

Pages '09: Go to the "Edit" Menu and choose "EndNote Citations> Manage Citations..."

** When editing citations, the Pages field is available here mainly for when you are formatting your paper with citations in footnotes. We therefore generally suggest simply using the Suffix field to enter citation pages.  

(Taken from the EndNote guide: )

Hints & Tips - making sure 'et al' appears in your citations

NB. the following is based on you needing to amend your citations based on requirements from your supervisor, editor or publisher as the instructions below may change the default citation style.

If you want 'et al' to appear in your citations rather than a list of multiple authors (e.g. in APA 6th), the you need to do the following:

 1. Go to: Edit > Output styles > Edit "APA 6th" (or the citiation style you are using)

 2. then to Citations/Author Lists, and the default will be is currently ticked for:

"abbreviated author list - first appearance: if 6 or more authors, list the first 1 and abbreviate with et al in italics"

"abbreviated author list - subsequent appearance: if 3 or more authors, list the first 1 and abbreviate with et al in italics"

 3. Amend as necessary. NOTE: you may want to create a copy of this style so that the defaul version is not changed. To do this click on File > Save as > and give it a name (e.g. APA 6th - amended)

 4. Also check settings in Word, Tools > Endnote > Format bibliography, to make sure that the output style is now set to "Output style: APA 6th - amended" (or whatever you have namded it.

 5. If the authors are still appearing as a list of names in the citation, then one other thing to check is that the authors are correctly entered in the record for that partcular reference in your EndNote library. They should be listed one to a line with a 'return' between each name and NOT separated by commas. e.g. 

   Oldham, G. R.
   Cummings, A.
   Mischel, L. J.
   Schmidtke, J. M
   Zho, J.

Hints & Tips: removing author name initials from APA Style

You can modify the output style to not include author initials for citations with the same author's last name.

To do so, in EndNote go to:

Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager.

Select the APA version you are using and click the "Edit" button.

Then go to "Author Name" under "Citations". Here, uncheck the option to "Use initials only for primary authors with the same name".

Additionally, you can go to "Ambiguous Citations" under "Citations" and uncheck the "Include author initials or full name in citation" option.
Once you have made your changes, close the style window, say Yes to save the changes, and format the bibliography in your document again. This should remove the author initials in your citations.

EndNote X2 and later you will not be able to click File and Save. Since you have modified one of the original installed files in the Program Files\EndNote X#\Styles folder or Applications\EndNote X#\Styles folder, you must use Save As to save a copy to your personal Styles folder. You would then need to switch output styles in Word.

Note: APA style does require author initials to display when you have an author with the same last name and different initials, so following this article will create a style that does not strictly conform to APA requirements. As an alternate solution, you could make certain that all author names are consistently entered into your EndNote library, including spacing and punctuation. For example, if you have entered

Smith, J

as an author in one record, you need to make sure every other instance of that author’s name in that library is identically formatted. Please note that a difference as small as one space may cause EndNote to believe it is dealing with two separate authors and add the initials.

(Taken from the EndNote support pages: )

Hints & Tips - changing AUTHOR capitalization

To change the way authors are displayed in an output style – do the following:

 1.    Open Endnote

 2.    From the Edit menu choose Output Styles and then Open Style Manager

 3.    Choose the style you wish to edit from the list (you will need to click Unmark All to untick the auto-selected styles, then tick the one you want)

 4.    IMPORTANT: always choose Save As from the File menu at this point & make a second copy of the Output style so that your edits take place in a new copy, not editing the original file.)

 5.    In the left-hand menu you will see a huge range of options

 6.    Under the Bibliography section you’ll see Author Name. Click this and, on the right you’ll see a Capitalization option.

 7.    Simply choose the option you want (repeat this process under the Citations section if you also want to change the in-text display of authors).

Once you’ve done this, you should be able to access the new style as usual from within your Word documents

Hints & Tips - Deleting References from draft documents

EndNote should automaticallyupdate the order of your references if you edit a document and remove or add a reference.

But, to be on the safe side, technically the method is as follows:

 1.    always save a backup copy and do new amendments on a new copy.

 2.    highlight the in-text citation that you want to remove

 3.    then use ‘Edit & manage citations’ to remove it,

 4.    then you can safely delete the surrounding text. 

NB - most people just highlight the whole paragraph and remove the text and the interspersed in-text citations all together. This is usually fine but sometimes Endnote codes get left behind and the document can end up in a mess, so we would always recommend using the ‘proper’ method above.

Even if you have cleanly removed the codes it is sometimes necessary to refresh the numbering by using ‘Convert to unformatted text’ and then ‘Update citations & bibliography’.

Hints & Tips - when a journal or publisher asks you NOT to use Endnote

Sometimes a journal or a publisher will list in their 'requirements' for submission of publication that you should NOT use EndNote.

This usually means ‘please don’t send us a document full of Endnote codes as this messes with our publishing software’.

In which case, the you can still use Endnote to prepare the document but should then do the following:

- click on the ‘Convert citations & bibliography’ button then select ‘Convert to plain text’ to create a 2nd copy of the document for the publisher.

This 2nd copy will be totally ‘clean’, with all Endnote codes removed.

NB - if you are asked to NOT use EndNote, then we would always recommend that you chekc with the journal editor / publisher to make sure that this is what they want you to do.

Hints & Tips - removing duplicates

Endnote can help you to identify & remove duplicates within your library. It is important to remove them, so that you do not accidentally refer to the same reference twice within your documents. To identify duplicates:

 1.   first make sure that you have selected All References in the left-hand panel

 2.   from the References menu, select Find Duplicates

 3.   a window will appear, showing two duplicate items alongside each other. From here you can choose to keep one of the items (the other will be removed from        your library).

 4.   if you are undecided about which one to keep, choose Skip and both items will be retained.

Hints & Tips - dealing with full & abbreviated journal names -

When you import records from some sources (e.g. Pubmed), the Endnote record sometimes contain only the abbreviated journal name. For other sources (e.g. Web of Science) the imported record contains the full journal name.

Unfortunately, this leads to inconsistency within your bibliographies. In order to 'normalise' the way journal names are displayed in your bibliography, you can either edit your Endnote records by hand, or you could try importing journal name directories. These contain the journal names for various disciplines along with their associated abbreviations.

To import a directory:

 -    choose Open Term Lists from the Tools menu

 -    choose the Journals Term List

 -    select the Lists tab

 -    click Import List and choose a journal directory (e.g. medical.txt) and select to import it.

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Royal Holloway Library LibGuide by Royal Holloway Library is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.