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Referencing, Citing, and Structuring Bibliographies

A beginners' guide to referencing and bibliographies.

What is an 'in-text' reference?

In-text references are placed in the body of the text of your essay or course work. The in-text reference should be placed immediately after the quote or paraphrase or the mention of someone else’s work and/or ideas.

Take a look at the boxes for examples of in-text referencing.


Definition: use someone else's ideas in your own words. You do not need to use inverted commas when you paraphrase, but you must clearly show the reader the original source of your information.

By improving your posture you can improve how you communicate feelings of power and confidence (McCarthy and Hatcher, 1996: 111).


Definition: use a brief account of someone else's ideas

Phillips (1999) suggests that generational change is inevitable and continuous.


Definition: use someone else's exact words. You should show the reader that it is a direct quote by placing the material in inverted commas.  

With presentations, ‘structure must be clear and precise’ (McCarthy and Hatcher, 1996: 69-70).


Definition: use someone else's figures, tables or structure. You will need to label each table/diagram with a number, and include a citation beneath as well as in the bibliography. 

Table 1 shows the daily residential water use per person in Melbourne (Melbourne Water 2012)

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